On this day Hōei and Mino–Owari earthquakes struck in Japan
On this day during on October 28, Hōei and Mino–Owari two earthquakes struck in 1707 and 1891 in Japan. These deadly earthquakes cause more than 12,000 lives.
1707, the Hōei Earthquake
On this day during on October 28, 1707, the Hōei earthquake (Hōei jishin 宝永地震) struck south-central Japan at around 14:00 local time.
However, it was the largest earthquake in Japanese history until surpassed by the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake. It caused moderate to severe damage throughout southwestern Honshu, Shikoku, and southeastern Kyūshū.
The earthquake, and the resulting destructive tsunami, caused more than 5,000 casualties. The earthquake destroyed 29,000 houses and triggered at least one major landslide, the Ohya slide in Shizuoka.
One of Japan’s three largest, it buried a 1.8 km2 area under an estimated 120 million m3 of debris. The Nara Basin shows evidence of event-induced liquefaction.
This event ruptured all of the segments of the Nankai megathrust simultaneously, the only earthquake known to have done this, with an estimated magnitude of 8.6 ML or 8.7 Mw.
It might also have triggered the last eruption of Mount Fuji 49 days later. Hōei was the era spanning the years from March 1704 through April 1711.
1891, the Mino–Owari Earthquake
On this day during on October 28, 1891, the Nōbi earthquake (濃尾地震, Nōbi Jishin) struck the former Japanese provinces of Mino and Owari in the Nōbi Plain in the early morning.
It struck with a surface wave magnitude of 8.0 and a moment magnitude of 7.5.
The event, also referred to as the 1891 Mino–Owari earthquake, the Great Gifu earthquake, or the Great Nōbi earthquake. This was the largest known inland earthquake in Japan’s history.
Damage from the event was widespread and the loss of life was significant. The many kilometers of visible fault breaks on the surface of the earth presented scientists with opportunities for field investigations that ultimately led to an improved understanding of the fault scarps that earthquakes often generate.
The earthquake caused 7,273 casualties and 17,175 were injured. On November 3, as the extent of the damage was becoming clearer, the same paper reported that more than 1,000 Japanese homes and other buildings had collapsed in Nagoya.
2011, The Tōhoku earthquake
On March 11, 2011, the Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami occurred at 14:46 JST (05:46 UTC).
It was the most powerful earthquake ever recorded in Japan, and the fourth most powerful earthquake in the world since modern record-keeping began in 1900.
The official figures released in 2021 reported 19,747 deaths, 6,242 injured, and 2,556 people missing.